Review questions, Network+

Well, this is the last of the first round of Network+ stuff for the VCE. I feel like I’m starting to learn what i’m doing and I’m enjoying learning networking. When I first approached networking I thought that I was absolutely never going to be able to get a Cisco cert and now I’m certain that at some point I would like to put the effort into it. And also an MCSE. But first I want to finish this security+ and pentest+. So it may be a while before I get to around to that. Regardless, it might be simply wishful thinking based around life circumstances.

anyway, lets umm do this thing.

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On some level, it makes sense to think it would be nat but its clearly wrong so, lets make a list!

  • NAT – Network address translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
  • PAT – Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address. The goal of PAT is to conserve IP addresses.
  • STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Ethernet networks. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation that results from them.
  • SNAT – Source Network Address Translation (source-nat or SNAT) allows traffic from a private network to go out to the internet. … The gateway has one arm on the public network and as part of SNAT, it replaces the source IP of the originating packet with its own public side IP.
  • ARP – address resolution protocol (arp) is a protocol used by the Internet Protocol (IP) [RFC826], specifically IPv4, to map IP network addresses to the hardware addresses used by a data link protocol. The protocol operates below the network layer as a part of the interface between the OSI network and OSI link layer.

Ok, so let me get this right, the P stands for port? ok…my bad.

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I dont know what most of this is:

  • DLP – Data loss prevention software detects potential data breaches/data ex-filtration transmissions and prevents them by monitoring, detecting and blocking sensitive data while in use, in motion, and at rest. The terms “data loss” and “data leak” are related and are often used interchangeably
  • IDS – intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.
  • WAF – web application firewall (or WAF) filters, monitors, and blocks HTTP traffic to and from a web application. A WAF is differentiated from a regular firewall in that a WAF is able to filter the content of specific web applications while regular firewalls serve as a safety gate between servers.
  • WPA – Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
  • TPM – Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

I guess that makes sense, not super clear though.

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I have no idea why i picked SIP and the other two don’t make sense but im not sure what DSCP is. Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) is a means of classifying and managing network traffic and of providing quality of service (QoS) in modern Layer 3 IP networks. It uses the 6-bit Differentiated Services (DS) field in the IP header for the purpose of packet classification. .

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Is this really nessesary?

  • PSTN – public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world’s circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
  • PRI – The Primary Rate Interface (PRI) is a telecommunications interface standard used on an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between the network and a user. PRI is the standard for providing telecommunication services to enterprises and offices.
  • BRI – Basic Rate Access is an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) configuration intended primarily for use in subscriber lines similar to those that have long been used for voice-grade telephone service.
  • E1/E2 – this seems out of scope
  • DSL – (Digital Subscriber Line

Not exactly sure why this is the answer, it sort of makes sense but there’s a large gap that will probably not be filled with basic research.

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a reservation ensures that the IP iis static but the gateway term throws it off a bit. Anyway, i should look up virtual IP: A virtual IP address (VIP or VIPA) is an IP address that doesn’t correspond to an actual physical network interface. Uses for VIPs include network address translation (especially, one-to-many NAT), fault-tolerance, and mobility.

I think i just realized they where creating a fault tolerant gateway with the same IP on two physical devices and now my questions are cleared up.

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Last question! Its late and i may come back to this but as for why i picked ICMP, i have no clue. Also, sip? why?I have question on this telcom stuff.

  • h. 323 – H.323 provides standards for equipment, computers and services for multimedia communication across packet based networks and specifies transmission protocols for real-time video, audio and data details. H.323 is widely used in IP based videoconferencing, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet telephony.
  • RTP – Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.

No idea about SIP in this situation though.

Well, that’s all for tonight

More test prep!

Some of this stuff seems really self explanatory if you know you what your doing. Unfortunately some of us, like me, don’t. So we have to put time and effort into learning how this stuff works so that in the off chance we are put in charge of a network we don’t make horrendous mistakes that cost people time and money and possibly even your job. I mean, I’m fully aware that someone who only read a Network+ book shouldn’t be solely responsible for an enterprise network. Given time and experience maybe we can get better before we completely ruin a bunch of very serious stuff though. Anyway, or if your in charge of that and aware that you shouldn’t be, sometimes its a good idea to walk away.

I’m back on the VCE questions tonight. Not really sure why but here we go. I mean, I do need to get them done.

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  • SIP – Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between two or more endpoints on IP networks.
  • BGP – BGP offers network stability that guarantees routers can quickly adapt to send packets through another reconnection if one internet path goes down. BGP makes routing decisions based on paths, rules or network policies configured by a network administrator. Each BGP router maintains a standard routing table used to direct packets in transit. This table is used in conjunction with a separate routing table, known as the routing information base (RIB), which is a data table stored on a server on the BGP router. The RIB contains route information both from directly connected external peers, as well as internal peers, and continually updates the routing table as changes occur. BGP is based on TCP/IP and uses client-server topology to communicate routing information, with the client-server initiating a BGP session by sending a request to the server.
  • LACP – Link Aggregation Control Protocol, In computer networking, the term link aggregation applies to various methods of combining multiple network connections in parallel in order to increase throughput beyond what a single connection could sustain, and to provide redundancy in case one of the links should fail
  • LLDP – Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a vendor-neutral link layer protocol used by network devices for advertising their identity, capabilities, and neighbors on a local area network based on IEEE 802 technology, principally wired Ethernet.

I feel like I should know what SIP is by now, I have no idea what I was thinking. However LACP does seem accurate.

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Of course I called this photo ‘oh rocky’! Anyway, as you see the VCE questions kick it up a notch in difficulty. The middle two don’t make sense to me so lets look at the top and bottom answers.

  • Time division multiplexing – (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern. It is used when the bit rate of the transmission medium exceeds that of the signal to be transmitted. This form of signal multiplexing was developed in telecommunications for telegraphy systems in the late 19th century, but found its most common application in digital telephony in the second half of the 20th century.
  • Time division spread spectrum – spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g., an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference, noise and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux density (e.g., in satellite down links).

Ok, then. good to also know about spread spectrum.

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Hummm….requires research lol. This is the closest thing The intrusion prevention system (IPS) compares traffic against signatures of known threats and blocks traffic when a threat is detected. Which, given its true and what the question is talking about,makes sense.

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Since OSI is starting to make sense I’m getting more comfortable with this. Layer 6 makes a hell of a lot of sense after, shocking, reading the book and learning the bits about encryption.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_transfer_mode – In the ISO-OSI reference model data link layer (layer 2), the basic transfer units are generically called frames. In ATM these frames are of a fixed (53 octets or bytes) length and specifically called “cells”.

So I wasn’t clear on what that was but I guess I understand it now. Anyway, Its getting late and I guess that’s all for tonight. I think eventually I’m going to have to get back into the slides but you know, I have to say its very enjoyable to really learn the material. However, I do have a week off at the of the month and that’s what I plan to do with that time.

Chapter 1 book questions

Its kind of amazing that HTML editors with all their fancy tech don’t auto save your work. I suppose that’s how it goes. Humm, not sure I started this properly. I started writing this post a few days ago and left it up on my computer and every day since then I’ve thought ‘if that post is still up, then I’ll take odds on god actually existing’ and each day I failed to save it. Anyway, I’m going to sort of work through book questions. I think I should be moderately fun. I mean who knows. I might learn a thing or two. Do I think it will help me pass the test, not really, no. Will I actually learn the material and be in a better position to talk about it. For sure. So I guess I’ll go through these first few questions again that didn’t take long… and then get through the reset of them tonight. If its not too late when I’m finished I may even head out for a beer later.

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Honestly, this is already seeming like too much effort. It’s C, SSH

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I mean, honestly, there are various answers to this, Powershell remote being the primary example. Especially for core or nano installs. but they are looking for RDP. SNMP is like a monitoring thing (im really not sure how else to explain it).

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It’s TCP, UDP just streams information, TCP checks to make sure it showed up.

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/

So its worth noting that I was super tired the first time I started into this. However I’m mostly remembering what I was thinking at the time. Anyway, I was looking up alternatives to tracert and still had the link up in google.

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I was surprised to learn that this was B, the Presentation layer. Most of the time when people explain the OSI model, I get hella confused because there is so much detail missing. However when I check out specific concepts I start to get a clearer picture of what exactly is going on.

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I have several questions about why this is and how this differs from making vlans and at the end of the day I’m willing to bet this is like an arbitrary thing. Humm, I just noticed that the PDF I had open in a web browser, of the book, is not open. I guess I should load that. Anyway, here is what the book has to say about that subject and honestly, when realizing that VLANS increase broadcast domains, I’m starting to understand.

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1500 for regular frames, 9000 for jumbo frames

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Generic mac has to be B. However, I’m not sure what IGMP is, The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IPv4 networks to establish multicast group memberships. IGMP is an integral part of IP multicast.. I guess now I have an idea.

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So this one is C, it is vendor neutral however I’m not sure how it interfaces with the Cisco tech for trunking and if you use that do you seriously only get to use Cisco stuff in your network. I guess I could do some research, however you could also look up the damn tech in the question for your self haha

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Humm, don’t really know this one. Time to hit the book again. It’s amazing that the book has answers in it. Lets see what it says about this one.

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So its the lowest bridge ID, got it….

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By process of elimination this should be easy. Usually you can rule out the smart ass answers of lower power or buy more. I mean, they want to talk about features of these babys :::slaps roof::: anyway, lets find out what LLDP does.

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I’m highly confused as to how this works but kind of amazed that it does. Must be some sort of wizard smoke power converter.

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Honestly, a little confused by this one for various reasons. Well, perhaps uneducated would be a better thought to convey. So, this is kind of complicated and I highly doubt that google will provide an obvious answer so I’m going to hit the book.

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Reading the question, I understand what they are getting at but I’m not quite sure this sentence really conveys whats going on here.

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Ok, half way through. Watching this Pantera live video, you can check it out on YouTube. Its the one that starts with the backdrop from Trend kill. Anyway, its BGP and the answer text, which will be at the end of the post, does a great job of explaining this.

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Apparently, you cant :: twice, so D.

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MMMkay, im starting to think ‘fuck my life’ but to be honest I picked C as a guess and I was right because they always start with FF.

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This one, no clue. Lol, ok so its D which is actually a part of A. However, there was a complicated explanation and I think I might have mostly understood it. Possibly as a result of … study.

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lets make a list

  • RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
  • VRRP – The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a computer networking protocol that provides for automatic assignment of available Internet Protocol (IP) routers to participating hosts. This increases the availability and reliability of routing paths via automatic default gateway selections on an IP subnetwork.
  • HSRP – Cisco proprietary redundancy protocol for establishing a fault-tolerant default gateway
  • VLSM – Variable Length Subnet Mask

Ok so its VRRP

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I’m no good with subnets to be honest and I’m not going to learn every thing it takes to understand this one tonight but the answer is B.

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Jesus, Mary and Joseph thats a long question! Anyway, its for sure on APIPA so it can’t contact the DHCP server. So, D.

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Really? I’m not looking this up but apparently its B.

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This one is interesting and I’m not sure of the answer! I read it and said ‘oh wow’ because I’m a huge nerd. The answer is A. I love a good fun fact.

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I’m taking at stab at this and saying C, lets check the answer. Turns out I was right.

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again, man, that’s a ton of effort and like, im on some serious coffee at this point so I’m reading the answer in the back which is C.

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Well, its servers so that would be infrastruture, A

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You would make a reservation, C

And now we are caught up to page 200 in a 500 page book and we have gone through chapter 1. Did I mention there is stuff after the last chapter in the book too? Anyway, that’s all for tonight. I had fun going on a learning journey and I hope you did too! Now I’m off to say and do things that totally contradict my fake ass ideology.

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Network+ book review pt. 2

It’s a great Friday afternoon and I’m sitting at my desk with a load of questions. It’s the same questions that I normally have to ask throughout my life but this time I’m mostly worried about passing this test and hoping to get that sys admin job. I’m not too worried about much else. Any way, sitting here at my desk killing time before I meet with my trainer at 7. I irresponsibly forgot my gym bag on Wednesday. Not sure if that cost me one of my 4 sessions this month but I would assume. Regardless, lets talk about some of this stuff from the book that I didn’t know about before I started studying.

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As previously mentioned this one is a bit confusing. Either because the question was confusing or because it is actually confusing. The thing about this is it defines a word I already understood while having no clue what a collision domain actually is. The thing about this is, studying independently, I never know if its just me or if its actually confusing. I guess I should go to YouTube:

I’m still kind of unclear but I guess I’ll move on. Honestly, the video was helpful though.

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These two concepts are often lumped together and I still have no idea what’s going on here. I basically understand that its a mass sent signal but im reminded of unicast and broadcast in image deployment. You know, I realize that I could probably pass the test without really learning this stuff but if I am given the opportunity to learn CCNA stuff it might be good to have a strong baseline. So lets go to YouTube again:

Oh man, there is all sorts of stuff:

Ok, now I’m maybe starting to figure this out. I mean honestly, probably not and there’s a guy that sits behind me at work that could possibly explain this but he might also fail to verbalize it. Thats the thing about some of this stuff.

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Yeah, ok that’s helpful and straight forward.

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At this point the only thing helpful here is the first definition. I have no idea how stuff moves through layers, which is asked on the test. I’m also starting to realize I like this method of independent learning using test questions and then looking back through the book to kind of hone my understand of the book and what I’m actually studying. Maybe that’s interesting. Ok, its not interesting but it is interesting to me haha

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Conceptually, I understand VLANs but I have many questions. The questions are all based around exactly how they work but vaguely get the concept. To be honest, with server stuff, I’m fully aware of how far the rabbit hole goes and I’m willing to kind of call a stopping place. However, with VLANs, its like ‘its a logical network segment’ but clearing up the exact differences between subnets and VLANs is confusing.

This is mostly helpful but I’m not entirely sure what exactly is going on but we are getting close to a comfort zone.

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I should have highlighted this one because the definition was right under the photo. I think I get the idea in that its sort of like preventing packets from being routed in a circle that goes on and on. There are also different kinds of this with newer features. That is covered in the book but I didn’t take a photo of that for some reason.

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This seems to be a somewhat antiquated term these days as every one is using ‘web application proxy’ to mean a DMZ. It’s for sure testable but simply making the note.

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This is true but generally it has DHCP information and basically all network configuration information for a server. At least, when I’ve tried to use it. This is also helpfulARP table

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Pretty much all of this is important and I’ve seen it on the test prep questions. Given that I’ve never really seen or had to use it I’m kind of limited to how much I am aware of its existence, so its time to hit YouTube.

That’s all for now. I may go back to and do the last two sets of slides as while this is helpful it get’s tiring. Who knows. May get in the mood to do more of this type of review.

Network+ “light house” book preview!

I decided to take a gander at a book. Possibly a good idea. Looking things up on the internet is helpful but if you have read a few of these ‘light house’ books your aware that they are helpful in providing general information but dont really prepare you for the test. That said, I’m slightly burnt out on running through slides at the moment. However, I do have two sets of posts ready to go based on slides. Anyway, lets get a little arm chair coaching on these books in while making some comments like ‘oh man, that is actually helpful information’ type comments. By the way, you can get this book, as well as many other books, from humble bundle at the time of this posting here. but only for a few more days and after that the linke will for sure be broken.

Ok, so lets get into these images and realistic expectations.

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LOL, lets go ahead and set those not realistic expectations that after you skim through this book you will be able to pass this test. Just go throw money at CompTIA and get your feelings hurt because ‘you didnt think it would be that hard’, news flash bro, this shit is not easy. Honestly though, its kind of funny to set false expectations though? Not sure if this comment is nessesary to be honest.

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LOL. are you studying for Network +? Honestly, if you purchased this book your probably studying for a test called Network+.

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Honestly, this is¬†critical to understanding this. If I understood how there’s where set up, I would maybe be better prepared to get the maximum amount of understanding out of them because I have a feeling that, while being slightly sarcastic, they may contain real world information that is very helpful.

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Again, if you are aware of what ‘might be ahead’ this is helpful information.

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Wow, more helpful information up front and as you can see we are already 1/10th of the way through the book. Amazing. Its kind of funny because people think these books are huge and take forever to get through but you learn to speed read and pick up the important information.

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Now we are on page 59 and finally, the book is starting. Oh Lighthouse, you rascal you haha

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Oh here comes more filer, after an apendex that could have been in the back of the book, we now start into actual words. Fuck, did I write this. No, my blog is way better orfganized than this. Oh look he threw in a personal story as if any one cares at all about you as an indvidual lol

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And right away we get into the confusing information where they throw way too many TCPS, NATs, FTPS and port numbers at you and to be honest, I’m assuming its for the sake of memeing. Dont get me wrong there is helpful information here but to be honest, I feel this is too soon and its mostly confusing jargon designed to make you feel like “ok easy” “omg WTF!” which, to be honest, works well and anyone with half a brain might actually enjoy.

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Hey hey, we actually covered this in a previous blog post about a protocol that was connection and connectionless oriented. Ok, this is actually a picture of me learning something from a book

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Really solid info! Man, I like reading these books, drama, action and learning! Man, I feel like Judy Bloome or one of The Boxcar Children!

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But as we can see there is no mention of this specifically, however if we paid lots of attention and learned the differences between TCP and UDP then we may have picked this up.

Anyway, I might say more about this book but I do intend on reading a lot of it. Sometimes its more helpful to do some homework before reading the book which searves as like a massive review while pointing out new details. You know, like you really enjoyed the movie so you want to read the book type of thing. Maybe if you study really hard and learn every thing then one day you too can be a riviting tech author!

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