Review questions, Network+

Well, this is the last of the first round of Network+ stuff for the VCE. I feel like I’m starting to learn what i’m doing and I’m enjoying learning networking. When I first approached networking I thought that I was absolutely never going to be able to get a Cisco cert and now I’m certain that at some point I would like to put the effort into it. And also an MCSE. But first I want to finish this security+ and pentest+. So it may be a while before I get to around to that. Regardless, it might be simply wishful thinking based around life circumstances.

anyway, lets umm do this thing.

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On some level, it makes sense to think it would be nat but its clearly wrong so, lets make a list!

  • NAT – Network address translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
  • PAT – Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address. The goal of PAT is to conserve IP addresses.
  • STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Ethernet networks. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation that results from them.
  • SNAT – Source Network Address Translation (source-nat or SNAT) allows traffic from a private network to go out to the internet. … The gateway has one arm on the public network and as part of SNAT, it replaces the source IP of the originating packet with its own public side IP.
  • ARP – address resolution protocol (arp) is a protocol used by the Internet Protocol (IP) [RFC826], specifically IPv4, to map IP network addresses to the hardware addresses used by a data link protocol. The protocol operates below the network layer as a part of the interface between the OSI network and OSI link layer.

Ok, so let me get this right, the P stands for port? ok…my bad.

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I dont know what most of this is:

  • DLP – Data loss prevention software detects potential data breaches/data ex-filtration transmissions and prevents them by monitoring, detecting and blocking sensitive data while in use, in motion, and at rest. The terms “data loss” and “data leak” are related and are often used interchangeably
  • IDS – intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.
  • WAF – web application firewall (or WAF) filters, monitors, and blocks HTTP traffic to and from a web application. A WAF is differentiated from a regular firewall in that a WAF is able to filter the content of specific web applications while regular firewalls serve as a safety gate between servers.
  • WPA – Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
  • TPM – Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

I guess that makes sense, not super clear though.

 photo dscp_zpspddm9e2t.jpg

I have no idea why i picked SIP and the other two don’t make sense but im not sure what DSCP is. Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) is a means of classifying and managing network traffic and of providing quality of service (QoS) in modern Layer 3 IP networks. It uses the 6-bit Differentiated Services (DS) field in the IP header for the purpose of packet classification. .

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Is this really nessesary?

  • PSTN – public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world’s circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
  • PRI – The Primary Rate Interface (PRI) is a telecommunications interface standard used on an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between the network and a user. PRI is the standard for providing telecommunication services to enterprises and offices.
  • BRI – Basic Rate Access is an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) configuration intended primarily for use in subscriber lines similar to those that have long been used for voice-grade telephone service.
  • E1/E2 – this seems out of scope
  • DSL – (Digital Subscriber Line

Not exactly sure why this is the answer, it sort of makes sense but there’s a large gap that will probably not be filled with basic research.

 photo virtual ip_zpsznregdyk.jpg

a reservation ensures that the IP iis static but the gateway term throws it off a bit. Anyway, i should look up virtual IP: A virtual IP address (VIP or VIPA) is an IP address that doesn’t correspond to an actual physical network interface. Uses for VIPs include network address translation (especially, one-to-many NAT), fault-tolerance, and mobility.

I think i just realized they where creating a fault tolerant gateway with the same IP on two physical devices and now my questions are cleared up.

 photo voip pbx_zpsicexahwp.jpg

Last question! Its late and i may come back to this but as for why i picked ICMP, i have no clue. Also, sip? why?I have question on this telcom stuff.

  • h. 323 – H.323 provides standards for equipment, computers and services for multimedia communication across packet based networks and specifies transmission protocols for real-time video, audio and data details. H.323 is widely used in IP based videoconferencing, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet telephony.
  • RTP – Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.

No idea about SIP in this situation though.

Well, that’s all for tonight

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