CCNA Ch. 10, What number post is this??? I’m not sure

Man, somewhere between trying to stay organized and clean, work being slightly crazy (without going into too much detail there are lots of people that are extremely resistant to change, the front line guys are not trying to argue with this to save face and im the guy that gets to say you need a new computer and your going to have to work with me to make this happen and no im not going to be a fall guy because you refuse, for some reason, to get a new and better computer), and going to the gym, I haven’t made as much time as I would have liked to for blogging. We did have an interesting security event at work this week though. Someone responded to a phishing email that directed them to a OneNote where they put in AD creds and then it started spamming the entire company with emails. I ended up fixing the machine that had AV that had not been updated in months and the user was not using our two factor for login. Getting our users to understand that two factor and not having ancient devices and that perhaps working with the people trying to make their lives more secure and functional, is possibly a good idea. There is a lot to that statement. Anyway, we now have a 90 day PW policy and everyone had to reset their passwords. The HD was also busy AF answering calls all afternoon. The Win7 upgrades are going great for the stores and they are easy to work with but any one with data to migrate or applications is normally more difficult to work with, for whatever reason. Anyway, lets get into this.

So I saved the questions to a draft instead of emailing them to my self in case I had a little time to work on them, at work. I’m now realizing I can see the answer and the question but if I try to avoid cheating by looking below I should be fine haha. Anyway, my guess was A, the I realized the above comment and I was like ‘nice’ csb

Anyway, what the hell does PVST stand for?

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) is a Cisco proprietary Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) which operates a separate instance of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) for each individual VLAN. A separate instance of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) for each VLAN helps VLAN to be configured independently and also can perform better.

Nice! Moooooving onnnnn omg whyyyyyy

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Honestly, I have no idea at this point and I’m sure I’ll cover more material on this at some point so im not going to stress it and I’ll read the answer

You know, that sounds really complicated but there was the issue of ‘it doesn’t say pick two’ but the two given answers seem logical. The naming convention is a little different. So, System ID extension value, means vlan? ok.

First off I dont know what a BPDU is, so lets find that out. What is BPDU since we have taken away the option to use an HTML editor and dont have a field for ‘URL name’ in the drop down text but you can totally edit the HTML for a few extra clicks, I think I’ll keep it like this. I guess that’s intended functionality for the block editor at this point. Ok, fine ill click over to edit as HTML and update it.

Acronym for bridge protocol data unit. BPDUs are data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a networktopology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridge interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state.

Well, I know have the most basic info but I’m still not sure what the hell it does or contains. Or why.

I’m not going to say that reading that is headache inducing as to the amount of info I don’t quite understand but I will say I have a ways to go with it. Like where does the bridge ID come in with the VLAN id. Like how does it interact with that? Is that the link between routers? The second part about the trunking header used to understand what routers are ‘aware’ of the VLAN makes sense. The part about the 12 bits in the middle will be slightly confusing. TLV is confusing because I assume it means the same as TTL but its Type-Length Value.

The thing is, when you keep reading these things, you start to gain more of an understanding. Like you use a VLAN assignment, which is sort of the same as trunking, on 2 ports. You dont have to do that but it is an option. My guess without looking below is D and it looks like im right.

ok, next question.

no idea

Still not sure i understand the ideas but ok

My guess would be C but I wouldnt assume to add additional information to the headers but I would assume it to do ‘costing’ as it where, to determine fastest link and balance traffic

I was right. ok so, now I have to go get my tires rotated since they did not do that last Sunday. I was going to go yesterday but things got busy. Oh, well. Today is better than never though. Anyway, I’ll do at least one more chapter today. Hopefully 2 but who knows what my level of ability to focus will be. Still amazed that when I started into server I was like “I have no idea how people do this while working a full time job” after having worked my way into management at my first tech job with a full college class load that some of which where graduate level classes and was married. I’m an idiot and kind of a workaholic. I would also prefer to be a nice guy and have you work with me as opposed to diametrically decomposing every bit of logic and sense of reality you have by forcing you to realize your simply a narcissistic asshole. Fun and happy and productive is much better but you know, make your choice.

Ahh the joys of documentation, Cisco book CH. 9

So anyway, lots to learn here and lots of leg work but whatever. I’m having a good time and maybe in a soild year of ‘lunches’ ill have this “under my belt”

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Make belts great again! Anyway, lets do this

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Ok, image posting has returned in full effect. Lets look at some questions!

No idea. lets find out what STP is

ahh ok, no loopsies

I want to guess B and C

Ok, so its still in STP state in which case blocking does actually make sense. Or things could stay the same. Honestly, its a really hard ball game at this point but the thing is, boy progression sure is great. Trust me, as a WoW player, I would know this …

A seems like the lowest but im not counting the number of digits so its C. Good thing to note , yep. sure is

hummm cd???

starting to get this

this is beyond me.

ok, im following

ok ….

this is simply terminology and ill try to remember it.

interesting. Well, this chapter was pretty well laid out. And I learned, I still have a lot to learn but right now we are covering all the basic’s and will get into tons of detail at a later date. I did at least go through these questions though.

CCNA Book 1, Ch 8,9…part uhaa, w/3..never mind it’s just 8.

So you may be unaware of this but there’s a rather large community of tech workers on twitter that all comunicate on a daily basis and if you remember Wolf Pack or NWO era professional wrestling, its pretty much the same. But basically every one thats like a product owner on something important thinks they are like some sort of half assed cyber punk from the future that doesn’t give a shit about common sense stuff and thinks “the cloud” and “containers” and fucking “information security” is great while forgetting the basics of how all of this shit works. The author doesn’t seem to be one of those people though, thankfully haha. It’s kind of a running theme. The real boomers are not the guys that look like boomers, generally “speaking”

Anyway, here is his public page

When you see something that looks like this on infosec twitter, its probably a highway to the boomer zoomer zone that lives with no ragrets


Its possible its a hela 1337 troll but unlikely lol. Anyway, why dont we learn how to do things instead of express the fact that we are rude and cannot read??

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Anyway, lets talk networking here hahaha I guess I could provide the names of the chapters but you could also read the book and find out! Don’t take my word for it!

Honestly, its a subnet but it may also be E. To be real, its kind of a confusing concept as its very similar to a subnet and I dont really understand “trunk”

Not really completely understanding this but it helps to clear up what a broadcast domain is. I guess.

I think you can have them all on the same subnet but you need to have a subnet right?

lol ok. further confusion

My money was on B however I felt that C was an unlikely possibility.

absolutely no idea

I should really learn more about trunking at this point since I absolutely do not understand it. VLAN Trunking

Trunking, a term frequently used in IT and telecommunications, refers to a network configuration that efficiently conveys data between multiple entities without using one-to-one links. Similar to how a tree trunk carries water to every branch and leaf, a network trunk essentially carries multiple streams of signals to the correct locations. For managed services providers (MSPs), trunking in networking will typically relate either to link aggregation or virtual local area network (VLAN) trunking, a practice that is integral to VLAN configuration. IP trunking refers specifically to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services, which may be relevant to some MSP customers as well. 

I’m not really clear on how this concept of, apparently a broadcast domain, is different in practical uses from a subnet. Maybe I can find some contrasting info to explain it. I didn’t really find this helpful but subnets are fucking address segments that are layer 2 and vlans are layer 3 and I have no idea how they are “comprised” or assigned The Difference Between VLANs and Subnets

At a high level, subnets and VLANs are analogous in that they both deal with segmenting or partitioning a portion of the network. However, VLANs are data link layer (OSI layer 2) constructs, while subnets are network layer (OSI layer 3) IP constructs, and they address (no pun intended) different issues on a network. Although it’s a common practice to create a one-to-one relationship between a VLAN and subnet, the fact that they are independent layer 2 and layer 3 constructs adds flexibility when designing a network.

This next paragraph is for my only fans

Just kidding, a little humor for you there. But I did realize I can keep an a href link text up and plug in what I want into it and copy and paste without having to switch the block to HTML to edit it. So that’s nice.

D for sure seems logically true based on how other systems work but A, does that one show all vlans? Oh shit he hit that you pick 2 situation again. Lets find out.

I guess D issss wrong. ITs happened before! Damn it all!

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what the hell is he looking at “see this wall? its made of wall!”

Good to know, running-config will show vlans

I mean, I dont really understand trunking which I guess is the same as having a vlan or broadcast domain but I felt like I learned something, none the less.

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I’m guessing A&B, highly confused by C/D

Good, it’s not just me that thinks it shouldn’t do any thing if its currently shut down.

B??????????????????????? I obviously I have no idea what I’m doing here.

Thank god. Ok, So here’s the scoop. I wanted to get these done yesterday but I’m trying to quit smoking again and was chewing nicorrette most of the day. When you do that, you may find your stomach in knots and that you can’t get off the can. It’s terrible. Absolutely terrible. Anyway, I was going to do 8&9 last night and didn’t get done with 8. So now I’m finishing this up while waiting on a calendar appointment with plans to do 9 tonight. Have a great Monday…Tuesday, what ever day it is.

Part 4, Cisco Book, ch 6,7

So just some things, my coworker has a youtube channel and has made his first video about his 6k gaming PC build. I told him I would share it and I’ve watched at least half of it and I promise I will watch the rest later as I have no clue on building modern high end PCs to be honest. He’s British and his name is Lucian, like Lucifer. Super cool right? Anyway, video below.

Anyway, nice day. Not really much else to say besides blogging from a Pepboys and getting an oil change. I mean, your forced to sit there, why not. I live in an urban area that isnt filled with Starbucks though, so its a little different here to be like “let me pull out my laptop because I’m trying to flex cause I’m so busy” or w/e but really no one cares if your polite. Just saying, dont be an asshole. It’s a common rule anywhere you go.

So lets get into this. Going to do 6-7 in this post and then do 2 more tomorrow. I think at least 2 day is a good pace. Who knows, I may do two more tonight. I really need to get rolling on this material lol..anyway.

Humm, no idea. Assuming B but given that I know like nothing about Cisco routers and I know at this point that generally watching videos about cisco routers is not as effective of a use of time as reading and writing about them, I’m not going to waste my time with that as I find this to be a more efficient platform.

I was right! great! moving ohhhnnnnn hum..,,/, nope

I have no idea. Why the fuck wouldnt you air gap them and have their PCs be in the lab or use a password. Or put their machines on like a VPN into the lab? Or use traffic control on a router that’s set to the lab.

Realizing you read the question wrong because you assumed it was “passwordless auth” given that using passwords is common. So do you always use vty to set up a login? This is that stuff that people that ask questions want to know. the 3rd paragraph nothing that login local setup requires username/password. Thats good to know. but the standard is just PW. I wonder if they log config changes with username/password lol ….speaking of ACTIVE DIRECTORY SHOULD TRACK LAST MACHINE LOGGED INTO ON USER DATA AND LAST USER LOGIN ON MACHINE DATA. Anyway.

Well, I’m fairly certain about D but its absolutely and interesting conversation that I will not forgot. I don’t know why, you just kind of dwell on things. Anyway, its not commenting out the idea on the user name so I have no idea.

I guess I don’t have to turn on SSH? Did i miss something lol “they previously changed the config to support SSH” Starting to get the VTY stuff but I’m interested in the B part now. The Global Config command. I’m trying to explain this to my self at this point and I think I’ll start to understand it in a few.

Total guess, ADF

Maybe I’m kind of starting to understand this. Nice!

I have no fucking clue and its so much information to read and consume and I’m doing that “i dont want to think thing” while realizing that it that it seems like there should be a Burger King right here but there isn’t for some reason but I didn’t need to eat anyway. (i’m still getting my oil changed and some other stuff)

Ok then, that one is kind of complicated and I’m not super clear on it but I think i understand it, conceptually most. But then translating the “this is what makes this work” which I only sort of understand into “this is what we need to do on the router” is kind of crazy.

Last question in this chapter. Going to guess A as none of the rest of the answers really make any sense to me but to be honest, I have no clue at all.

Thank god I was right but I still don\t understand any of that. I mean, it took along time to get to understanding server but I’m sure I’ll understand this stuff eventually. Networking is not as universal as client management. Basically you have to use MSFT products for that and the worst part is, the people that are supposed to maintain that part of the business don’t give a shit about it and think that everyone should use like thin clients and like VDIs that are preconfigured but you still have issues of connectivity and you still need to push GPs to them. There are so many problems here. Azure, what the fuck are you guys doing over there? This is like only used for like candy land of fucking web apps? Ok then. Like from an administrative standpoint, I’m not sure its very helpful for most people in the real world. Anyway.

I guess I could have made that one post since I didn’t get around to doing the second chapter yesterday.

Lol, absolutely no fucking clue. What the hell is IEEE standard Autonegotiation?

Autonegotiation is a signaling mechanism and procedure used by Ethernet over twisted pair by which two connected devices choose common transmission parameters, such as speed, duplex mode, and flow control. In this process, the connected devices first share their capabilities regarding these parameters and then choose the highest performance transmission mode they both support.

This is super annoying that I cant add a link text in the visual editor? It’s somewhere between you want to subjgate people to using a format you can sell and simply making people look dumb. Then judge them for copying and pasting basic HTML cmds? I’m not really sure but you should fix it lol

Anyway, that actually makes sense now that I know what it is.

Given the answer to the last one, that involved setting duplex, one would assume E as well but who knows lol

great. that makes sense.

I want to say the switch is going to want to go at full speed, A but who knows.

They caught me on the D part. I didnt read the 2 answers but I was kind of curious to see if it said “full duplex” or was like “nah fuck it its just 1000 mb”

Just a guess because B&C don’t make any sense lol AD&E

Ok, reading it again maybe B does make sense? It says 2 down things. And E says “can be”. MaYbE I N33d t0 ReaD bettR

I dont know why it wouldnt not be D. It’s going to take some explanation to understand why its not D

Damn, the you pick 2 strikes again but the thing is, I was right.

Im guessing B, C and D are producing a similar scenario. A is possible but im not sure how a shutdown can be the source of collision.

ok, yeah now it makes sense as to “C is not a cause for concern because SW2 should also be set to full” but isn’t duplex and speed like the same thing? That’s what all the answers have been saying. you know full dup or 1000 mbps?

lol ok then…right. This isnt a you pick two.

Well, having fun. Hopefully I’ll get two more chapters done today. I dont really have anything going on so it should be possible. Excited about that! Happy Labor day!

Part 3, ch…4 of the Cisco book. Maybe 2 chapters, H2T

Anyway, Holiday weekend. I’m home alone, watching oceans 12 and reading about stuff. Its funny though, no one vocally respects my opinions most of the time until I start seeing prices go up on things I talk about and I’m like please go back to your fucking bull shit or at least respect me or something. Anyway, the gravity of the situation is this: I would eventually like to at least break into the VCE lol. Ok, salt shakers down! Yeah, really excited about this job. It’s a job. Things are kind of annoying. Most people, “speak English” , normally it doesn’t bother me either way as I would have no intention of seeming rude given that English is a hard language to learn and I would assume to be an asshole who imposes my born manor of speaking upon people like a haphazard colonist. Went to the gym, getting really strong at these squats pretty quick. I did 135×10, 145×10, 155×10, and 135×10 again. This time last year I was having trouble squating using ropes that had handles for me to pull my self up with lol. So, I made a lot of progress. Not really trying to be bulky and break records but my main fitness goal is a 60 min 10k in the next year or so and squat and bench my own weight. My bench is terrible and I have a crap upper body but my assisted dips have dropped like 100 lbs off of them in the past year so thats cool. Anyway, lets uha, get into Cisco stuff. I added a search feature that I paid 10 dollars for but it apparently doesn’t parse text or hasnt parsed the contents of this yet. I hope it actually works.

I want to say ABC but this is a total shot in the dark.

well, that clears that up. A&B. Next question

I would say C&D but it seems like it work work in all of them. Kind of an odd reboot cmd though

lol so if you put ‘do’ in front of it, it works in C&D but with just reload it only works in enable mode. ok…..

Im more inclined to pick B as I dont think telnet encrypts any thing but it might encrypt password exchanges with like the oldest/most vulnerable encryption standard known to man.

Still, SSH isnt that secure. its old as shit. anyway.

Im going to guess ROM as its usually fixed and then flashed and RAM, as a PC concept, looses its data upon being shut down generally speaking

Noooo we are going to uses these terms differently lol

No clue at all.

Ok, So its loading on boot from NVRAM (ROM) (im sticking with this until im proven that I dont know what I’m saying) into the RAM and then you can edit the running config in the RAM without saving it into the config thats loaded on boot? Thats actually kind of helpful, I suppose. But really only in a test enviro and 9 times out of 10 people are going to be like “why isnt this working” after a switch reboot, so its kind of dumb.

I have no clue whats going on here. Anyway, Going to move into another chapter as I accept that my foldering situation for photos are messed up. I guess I could post it in another post….wait , how long is this? Not that long lol Ok, Here is Chapter 5 and I’m going to try to do one more of these tonight after this one. Then as many as possible tomorrow too.

So here is the interesting thing about this,troubleshooting%2C%20especially%20for%20remote%20locations im not even going to bother editing the HTML, just click it. Nothing to do with the question at hand, which i dont know the answer to.

What the hell do they mean by floods the frame? I dont think im going to get a solid google answer on that but im going to assume it goes nowhere if it doesnt know where to rout it? Why is it using a just a mac and not an IP? That seems like a tough but fun project.

Oh so flooding is sending it out till it finds a winner, cool.

To be honest, my first guess was A but I had no idea what the hell was going on with it. you would think that, wait the answer was in the answer to the last question lol. Moving on.

I want to say “why wouldn’t it only need to know MACs on its own VLAN so C but I dont understand this well enough and im still unsure of the concept of bridging but I will get to it.

Of course, precisely. I understood that totally.

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I understand this but I would like an explanation as to why its not B given there are 3 macs listed here. The answer does not clarify that. I wish that it did.

Anyway, thats all for now. Going to try to get one more done before bed but currently its cig and beer time. Trying to roll back on smoking. Dialied it back up again but I’m not having a super hard time at one every 5 hours to be honest. I should stick with this. Smoking is bad for all kinds of reasons.

CCNA Book review, PT 2

This is going pretty good, learning some new stuff. Realizing that I should probably re-read some of the stuff I read while understanding that the last post was mostly just slightly different Network+ material and that I’m expecting this to be much harder. I never really thought that I would be able to get any Cisco cert when I got my first cert on Windows Vista about 6 months to a year after it was released. I don’t remember it being exceptionally challenging as I was able to go to class and pass the test right away. I did leave the class early though. This may have been the best decision I have ever made in my entire life as I had some credit with a boot camp company that helped me to get my MCSA and if I had not gotten that, I honestly don’t know where I would be today. However, I can say I would be much more unhappy. Anyway, excited to learn this stuff and I’m pretty sure I can do it but I’ll take my time. You know, back to that MCSA on Server thing, I was shocked at how fucking hard it was. I mean, dang, I didn’t know any of this stuff and had no idea how anyone learned any of it. Please do support CED Solutions though. Obviously, I’m not in a position to go to boot camps for certs and my employment opportunities don’t usually entail jumping at the chance to make me more employable to a competitor.

Again, I don’t even know what the hell an HDLC header is so lets start there

Ok, good to know! But I’m not finding any info on whats normally in the header. And, the article mentions something about a protocol type.

This is different from the WIKI but who knows.

I’ve heard of MPLS but I’m not exactly sure what it is, so I’m going to have to check on that.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a routing technique in telecommunications networks that directs data from one node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, thus avoiding complex lookups in a routing table and speeding traffic flows.[1] The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols, hence the “multiprotocol” reference on its name. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1ATMFrame Relay, and DSL.

The second part of B is confusing because it seems like it should be a p2p local connection but this says WAN so who knows. Maybe I’m confused about the concept. D makes sense to me but I suppose I have to drop the assumption that R1 to R2 doesn’t include other hops.

This is like way outside of my comfort zone with understanding networking but I suppose its good to learn this stuff. So, the first step here is to see if I can find any YouTube videos about HDLC because I really don’t know anything about it. This is really painful to have to really study like this for some reason because I’m used to having a vague idea of a tech but it turns out there are lots of videos about this. Its just coming to that conclusion that I know “data goes, there’s like packets and capsules or something” and im certified on this! hahaha but as you can see below, this time last year i started working with a personal trainer and couldn’t do squats with any weight at all and was like holding on to these rope things and this weekend im expecting to set another personal record and do it 8 times after hitting a personal record I set 2 weeks ago 30 times. This is absolutely reasonable knowing my body and how I’ve geared up to press my legs, anyway. I’m sure ill post pics on twitter. Anyway, I listened to this and learned that the Cisco devices that use this add a type field and will not send using this protocol to non Cisco routers and its time to head home. Save a draft and keep going later tonight.

Well that wasnt really enough info

This gave me every thing i needed to know and honestly didn’t even finish it because i’m not sure how much of this ill need to know. I’ve done a few of this and know generally its best not to waste time on some of this stuff but you really have to get a feel for the learning curve. Anyway, ill probably end up coming back to it. I did this with Sec+, which is a real bugger, and it worked great. Also, i have no idea how that IP packets vary from HDLC packets and I should probably get into that at some point. Here is one more video that covers FCS but says nothing about the added Cisco Type field, which isnt surprising given this is just general networking knowledge.

ok, lets move on to question 4

My gut is C as when i look in routing tables I dont think ive ever seen a MAC listed and DNS does not normally use MAC addresses for anything.

I’m pretty sure this is C as well but its possible it’s A. in Azure its probably A lol

Turns out I was right!

I want to say C&D

Ok, that makes sense and D probably should be another protcol rather than “network discovery” not being included in this as A is a basic function. Its not really DNS though, right? I dont often look at whats in routers but im assuming its a routing table which does not provide name resolution, as I understand it? who am I asking this to lol

it says learn and PCs can keep local copies of DNS so im going with C as ARP tables are configured manually and ping isnt “learning” but I could be fucking this up lol

ok, i was right! I was thinking I would do two of these chapters per post but this is a really long post. I might get started on another tonight but after a 3 mile run, cleaning the house and generally acting like Thor which consists of dealing with problems that im good at dealing with that are extremely unique to my life situation, im kind of exhausted lol and my laundry is buzzing. that i have no intention of folding tonight. I hate doing laundry.

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So, I’ve Changed Course, CCNA it is

I’ve started into getting a CCNA rather than try and get the stuff for the new Azure tests that where announced right after I purchased the material. How tragic. I may pursue those after this one is over but who knows. I also started into a new job and my admin encouraged a CCNA over an Azure cert. Cool thing about the new job, I have access to all sorts of admin stuff and am currently basically one manning a project to find and replace Win7 machines and am imagining a ton of machines. Anyway, I started into questions and quickly realized that I was in over my head after a Network+ but thankfully, there are books! I even found the primary CCNA book online for free after searching for a while. Its on a google drive and I’m not going to link it here but if you cant find it, I’m really not that hard to get a hold of. Anyway, ive read about half of the book and thought that I would go through some of the questions from the book. I do have a VCE as well and I’ll get into that but I thought it might be good to go through this. Anyway, apparently this is part 1 and i may actually have to purchase part 2 but we will get to that at later point. CCNA 200-301 Official Cert Guide, Volume 1

So the book looks like this and honestly its really well written but I have a long way to go so I’ll probably go through each volume of this and like I said, im about half way through the book. Anyway, this is the first two chapters with the answers and while I highly doubt the author will read this post, hopefully he doesnt get mad haha

So I hate theses things and while I’m sure that to some extent they exist in actual code or data transmission, I have a feeling its more of a concept of encapsulation and framing. This would be much easier for me to comprehend as I have a really hard time memorizing things that I cannot associate with concepts. I don’t know why, but its true. Anyway, the answers are below and I’m not spending much time on this unless I see a bunch of questions on the subject.

Ok, so moving on to the next one, same kind of thing but honestly just because its in a book absolutly does not mean it will be on test

Anyway, at this point it might be good to take a look at this. Like I was saying, not spending a bunch of time on it. Yet, here we are with a graph. Which doesnt make much sense as adjecent would be next to each other. Not to mention the book answers tell us HTTP is an Application layer, which is the highest level of coms and that TCP is transport. I mean I suppose that makes sense in theory but here is possibly a better graph.

TCP/IP Model: What is TCP IP Stack? Protocol Layers, Advantages

And at this point, I move on.

I think this one is pretty obvious as its TCP to TCP transport but it does get me at least in the mood of understanding the complicatedness of HTTP transmission as it must move through the layers and there for somehow touch each form of communication in the form of encapsulation or framing as I was saying earlier.

oh, look, here we are with encapsulation comments which seem to indicate a direction of thought.

I would think this could be frame or packet. I’m not really sure exactly what a packet is but I would think it would only contain to and from information rather than data but lets see what the answer is.

Kind of close on this one but still slightly confused by it but understanding the idea that its types of headers and footers that they call encapsulation that are the determining factors in what we are looking at.

No fucking clue on this one. I have a feeling this will be testable and it is interesting information to consume.

Ok, so this is actually interesting that since it is a data-link protocol layer 2 PDU, which stands for protocol data units. I’ve never heard that term before.

I would assume A to be true but lets find out!

I was right, amazing!

Honestly, i would be guessing but assuming B

Wrong! Fake news! This is C. Good to know….

I’m going to be shocked if this is testable but again, I had no clue on the pin numbers. I dont think I’ll have to make cables anytime soon but who fucking knows. Sorry for cuss-n

I find this answer confusing as I can absolutely use any cord from a PC to literally any switch but ok!

Thats a confusing answer. I am vaguely familiar with fiber though. The main difference is sending and receiving data with multimode. Distance, I hadn’t really considered. Somehow.

This is what I would have assumed to be true as A is extremely improbable to be possible. C seems useless as its a widely implemented technology but d is tempting as AI is crazy.

I have no idea what this is so I should probably look it up. Frame check sequence

All frames and the bits, bytes, and fields contained within them, are susceptible to errors from a variety of sources. The FCS field contains a number that is calculated by the source node based on the data in the frame. This number is added to the end of a frame that is sent. When the destination node receives the frame the FCS number is recalculated and compared with the FCS number included in the frame. If the two numbers are different, an error is assumed and the frame is discarded.

The FCS provides error detection only. Error recovery must be performed through separate means. Ethernet, for example, specifies that a damaged frame should be discarded and does not specify any action to cause the frame to be retransmitted. Other protocols, notably the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), can notice the data loss and initiate retransmission and error recovery.[2]

So its error detection. Which we picked up from the answer and it basically works similarly to encryption which is in no way surprising lol

The first part is interesting about the length of the address and the OUI. I mean, this is the worst sentence I’ve ever written but I have no idea what the hell else to say haha. Absolutely bonkers. Anyway, most of this seems fairly baseline in terms of big picture how traffic gets from point A to point B and is little more than “different” Network+ info but I will say there is some actually detailed information int the book. Great day at work, planning and waiting on responses. Tomorrow I’ll start bothering people on the phone to find out info about monitor adapters.

Azure, Pt 7! Now with more Dev blogs! and LOASP

So I’ve kind of been worrying lately about educating my self out of a job because lately reciters are calling and asking if I know something about a thing that I have a certification for and explaining both hands on and education they are kind of shocked to learn that I actually know what I’m talking about and can point out examples of using it. Not all of them but a fair number. Anyway, I like to learn and am now fairly proficient at learning new tech concepts. I was working for a company doing password resets for user logins, mostly, with an MCSA on Server 2012 so being ‘under employed’ for my education level is less stressful than being unemployed. Anyway, I’m kind of trying to take it slow while realizing that I’m easily board and like to have things to do. Also my desk is great so I love sitting here and studying. That said I ordered an art history book and am haggling with a guy over the price on a 3 volume set about the crusades on eBay to occupy my time now that I’ve completely rebuilt my living space haha. Its much more expensive on Amazon but this is what I was talking about: History of The Crusades, 3 Volume Set: The First Crusade, The Kingdom of Jerusalem, The Kingdom of… by Steven Runciman and I was kind of thinking about starting another blog to write about thoughts expressed in those two books so I don’t have to worry so much about being completely overqualified for everything and having to speak with people who don’t believe me and have little motivation to help me acquire appropriate employment. I’m not saying that every person I speak with has this attitude but its kind of a running joke. Besides, I love art and history and it can be very good subject to have lots of knowledge about for dealing with understanding certain situations. This provides a path for education, I plan to keep learning as long as I’m breathing, and possibly wont educate me out of a job. Dont know though. Depends on my mood. Currently thinking I’m enjoying learning Azure and might just do nothing but flip flop between the two subjects. Three subjects, sorry. Anyway, lets get into Azure.

There are a few issues here. First of all it says 3 actions and you can only pick one. Second I’m assuming you have to have a gateway subnet before you can actually create the VPN Gateway? Assuming they simply mean the subnet thats assigned to that gateway. Anyway, lets take a look to verify this with the linked article: Step-By-Step: Configuring a site-to-site VPN Gateway between Azure and On-Premise

After this is created then you actually create the gateway

Then you create the VPN

There is actually another step in this before creating the VPN that the question seems to be skipping.

Ok, so this one is missing a few things. It had the “further information” button but it was totally blank so what the hell are blueprint files? Is this a thing or is it simply a file called blueprint? Anyway, lets start with Google: What is Azure Blueprints?

Just as a blueprint allows an engineer or an architect to sketch a project’s design parameters, Azure Blueprints enables cloud architects and central information technology groups to define a repeatable set of Azure resources that implements and adheres to an organization’s standards, patterns, and requirements. Azure Blueprints makes it possible for development teams to rapidly build and stand up new environments with trust they’re building within organizational compliance with a set of built-in components, such as networking, to speed up development and delivery.

So now we have an idea of this but regardless we seem to be just copying files. Anyway, lets check this out: Use an Azure file share with Windows

So its using SMB and requiring a key to login to the Azure share but it doesn’t seem to be encrypting the traffic. To my knowledge SMB doesn’t encrypt traffic but lets find out!

SMB Encryption uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-CCM algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the data. AES-CCM also provides data integrity validation (signing) for encrypted file shares, regardless of the SMB signing settings. If you want to enable SMB signing without encryption, you can continue to do this. For more information, see The Basics of SMB Signing.

Yep, its encrypted. You may have to actually turn it on if your using SMB 2.0 but you shouldnt use that any way. If im understanding it right

Anchorman GIFs | POPSUGAR Entertainment

So whats ‘Storage Explorer’ Doctor Nick? I’m not sure, lets see if its real: Get started with Storage Explorer

Microsoft Azure Storage Explorer is a standalone app that makes it easy to work with Azure Storage data on Windows, macOS, and Linux. In this article, you’ll learn several ways of connecting to and managing your Azure storage accounts.

Sure does seem like you would be able to drag and drop doesn’t it? But really, your just logging into your Azure drives through a desktop app rather than a web browser. I wonder if it run’s better in chrome. Probably lol

This makes no sense because 5 mins ago ‘Network Contributor’ did not mean you could ‘Create a Subnet’! is a Virtual Network different than a subnet? The fuck are they talking about here.

ok boomer. I musta had been mistaken about some detail. I’ll get it ironed out.

Basic shell commands for network troubleshooting are so fucking primitive, i cant even. lol, anyway. One would assume that ‘Diagnostics” did not mean ‘troubleshoot’. Anyway, is connection troubleshoot real? Also, the fuck do they mean by VM Blade??? The woooorlllddd may never know. Im not even goin there with that one. I’m not inclined to believe that it is. Troubleshooting connectivity problems between Azure VMs

I have, no fucking idea whats going on here and the Overview is of no help. Lets start with ‘Entity Framework’

The Entity Framework provides the glue between your object oriented code and the SQL Azure relational database in a framework that is fully compatible with your skills and development tools. Integrated into Visual Studio, and part of ADO.NET, the entity framework provides object relational map capabilities that help an application developer focus on the needs of the application as opposed to the complexities of bridging disparate data representations.

dev blogs dont get cited

Parks and Recreation - April Ludgate's Best Moments (Supercut ...

Just kidding lol Why use the Entity Framework with SQL Azure?

Look, I don’t even know what the API error is!!! How much do you expect me to research this without MORE DATA. …. ok boomers, all right. Connection Resiliency

Connection resiliency automatically retries failed database commands. The feature can be used with any database by supplying an “execution strategy”, which encapsulates the logic necessary to detect failures and retry commands. EF Core providers can supply execution strategies tailored to their specific database failure conditions and optimal retry policies.

Looks like its being used here but the specifics of ‘exponential backoff’ are not here and its probably some SQL stuff that I’m, not getting into today but I atleast have an idea of what the hell this is even if they say what the API error is that appears to be an issue with data insertion.

That’s all for now, may go for a run and then learn some more. Running 8k’s fairly consistently. Much faster than last year. Ran a mile in 10:45 but trying to get to a 60 min 10k eventually so even a 10 min mile isnt fast enough for that at all. Whatever, I’ll figure it out. Fuck having a girl friend lol

Azure, PT 6

It’s been an intresting few days. Lots of solid leads on jobs and lots of the same old same old. Sometimes, its almost as if people ask questions about things they them selves don’t understand while expecting you to know less than them and are suprised by the fact that you know what your talking about whilst not checking your research material or realizing how much effort goes into obtaining certifications. Anyway, I think I’m pretty much done playing this old house and excited to blog from this location.


Yep, totally bought stuff to make scented black candles to sell on etsy because I’m “a lame ass mall goth kid.” Soap making also requires about the same stuff but with using a soap base instead of wax and I do very much like using fancy bar soap for some reason. Judge away as I eat my chicken nuggets and MacNCheese. lol regardless, excited to get back to work on computer stuff. I’m fairly sure I can have the 300 passed before the deadline but no idea if it will still count. Honestly, if I don’t get a job and really “hunker down” i’m sure I can get both of them knocked out. Still waiting to hear what MSFT says about taking one old and one new test though. This would be my preferred method. If you haven’t heard they are retiring the 300 and 301 in September. After having acquired 3 significant certs last year I’m not in a huge rush to get this one knocked out but I can if need be. Anyway, I have had about half a bottle of wine and am ready to see to what we can find in Azure :::says some incompetent gibberish that is some how approved of and generates a response:::

The Musician Portraits of John Singer Sargent | Operavore | WQXR

I’ll be real honest, I have no idea what the hell they are talking about which is awesome because it gives me a lot of stuff to learn and read so lets start with some definitions here:

  • Microservices – Microservices are a software architecture style in which applications are composed of small, independent modules that communicate with each other using well-defined API contracts. These service modules are highly decoupled building blocks that are small enough to implement a single functionality. The purpose of microservices architectures is to make it easier to develop and scale applications. Microservice architectures foster collaboration between autonomous teams and enable them to bring new functionalities to market faster.
  • Service Fabric Cluster – (I have a loose idea on this one) Azure Service Fabric is a distributed systems platform that makes it easy to package, deploy, and manage scalable and reliable microservices and containers. Service Fabric also addresses the significant challenges in developing and managing cloud native applications. Developers and administrators can avoid complex infrastructure problems and focus on implementing mission-critical, demanding workloads that are scalable, reliable, and manageable. Service Fabric represents the next-generation platform for building and managing these enterprise-class, tier-1, cloud-scale applications running in containers.

It was at this point where I had finished my bottle of wine and realize that I was sleepy and required a good solid nap. After attempting to watch Blown Away with Tommy Lee Jones, realizing I had to pay for it and then switching back to the usual TCM programming. Waking up with a mild case of depression and finding funny memes that made fun of people who where not smart and rude, made my self a bagel and now we are back on track. No closer to finding stable and suitable employment though. Anyway, free photo from Blown Away and I’m back to creating content for the purpose of sustaining my existence in a meaningful fashion.

TOMMY LEE JONES BLOWN AWAY (1994 Stock Photo - Alamy
  • Scale Agility – there isn’t a quick definition on this but I’m pretty sure what the mean is the ability to scale up and down quickly.

Anyway, now that we understand what all those terms are, the answer makes sense. There is so much devops stuff in Azure that’s completely new to me. It’s sort of overwhelming but not really. They talk about separation of roles and so forth but its not really that so much as deploying a router as an application rather than a physical bit of hardware. As to why admins are expected to know how to launch and maintain docker chat bots, thats beyond me.

There is an interesting note in the last one that says once they spin up, they dont go down unless memory usage goes down from 50% and the graph is out of order but it spins up to 5 in the second one and then the memory usage/cpu usage never drops enough to let it go to 3 or less.

This is interesting because I’m not sure how Hyper-V works in Azure. Also, if it runs through a gateway is that considered giving it a public address? I would assume so but lets take a look at the network adapter situation for VM’s in Azure. Add network interfaces to or remove network interfaces from virtual machines – per this it seems like you simply add a network adapter? I don’t know if the UI is the same as regular Hyper-V. I would assume but this makes it seem as if that where not that case. I’ll get into that later. ok so per this Configure a private IP address for a VM using the Azure portal the UI is totally different and it looks like you can make a private address and use a public gateway that has NAT. The interesting thing about this is that im assuming this could all still be not connected to the internet without an actual public gateway.

This one is kind of interesting because what its getting at is that as long as there is policy that says that machine is backed up then you cant get rid of that machine basically. I’m left wondering if the Recovery Services Vault is set for only one machine or several machines.

It seems like you have a vault set for one machine which was what the D incorrect answer was kind of hinting at.

This is using OAuth 2.0 and after having gone through Sec+ it becomes really obvious that one of these must use that technology. Clearly D or E would be the choice. The MFA thing kind of throws things off a bit. A and B have nothing to do with this at all. Amazing, how that … works. No where in this does it say that MFA is required under the API conditions list so im really left with D and E

  • Bot Framework Portal – this appears to be a portal to login to in order to build a bot.
  • Bot Framework Authentication – The Azure Bot Service v4 SDK facilitates the development of bots that can access online resources that require authentication. Your bot does not need to manage authentication tokens. Azure does it for you using OAuth2 to generate a token, based on each user’s credentials. Your bot uses the token generated by Azure to access those resources. In this way, the user does not have to provide ID and password to the bot to access a secured resource but only to a trusted identity provider.

And there we are, this uses OAuth2, holy fuck MSFT isn’t using CHAP or some bullshit that makes no sense and have decided to go with the norm here? Clap!

Anyway, I think that’s all for now and I feel like I’ve learned a ton. Another day in wonka land of nonsense Azure posting.

Send Mails from Event Hub via Azure Functions

Great post!


Azure Event Hubs is an event ingestion service for big data streaming workloads. It is capable of receiving and processing millions of events per second. Data sent to an event hub can be transformed and stored by using any real-time analytics provider or batching/storage adapters.

It can also be used to receive Machine’s Telemetry data in a Manufacture Organization. A monitoring and alerting system can be deployed on Event Hubs.

In this article, we will learn to send an email with SendGrid for disconnected Machines based on the telemetry data received in the Event Hub. SendGrid is a cloud-based email service that provides reliable transactional email delivery, scalability, and real-time analytics along with flexible APIs that make custom integration easy

So Let’s begin.


  • Event Hub Should be up and running.
  • Events Data received by Event Hub should have below Schema:

  • To…

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